About Author Boer

The Series: Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations

Author's Preliminary Comments on the Series

What This Series Seeks to Accomplish

Publication / Distribution Information

The Series Itself – volume 1-8/2 (excluding 8/1)

Publisher's Interview with Boer

Comments on this Series

Articles Related to the Series

Parameters for Living Together: Nigerian Voices


Articles Intended for the Series but Not Fully up to Its Standard

Additional Boer Writings on Christian-Muslim Relations

Centres, Organizations, Books/lets, Articles, Lectures, Comments, Correspondence*

Organizations and Centres

Guest Articles

Philip Ostien


Abbreviations and Identification

CCChristian Courier – a Christian bi-monthly based in St. Catherines, ON, Canada.

CCD/CDCompanion CD – A CD that not only contains the text of the entire series Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, but also all the appendices. Available from author at < > as long as supplies last.

CTJCalvin Theological Journal.

ICSInstitute of Church & Society, Jos/Ibadan, Nigeria.

Perspectives – "A Journal of Reformed Thought" published by the Reformed Church Press.

REC Focus – Discontinued quarterly journal of the moribund Reformed Ecumenical Council.

TCNNTheological College of Northern Nigeria, Bukuru/Jos, Nigeria.

TRB – TCNN Research Bulletin.

VSVancouver Sun, a Vancouver BC daily.

WDWoord & Daad – a Reformational journal from the University of Potchefstroom, South Africa.


About Author Boer

Dr. Jan H. Boer – aka "John," the English equivalent – was born in The Netherlands and immigrated to British Columbia, Canada, with his parental family during his teens. At age 20, after becoming a Canadian citizen, he promptly left the country and spent 43 years abroad, as a student in Europe and the USA and as an inter-church worker in Nigeria. He returned to "retire" in Vancouver, British Columbia, where he wrote most of this series. For more details about his life and career as well as other books he has written, turn to the About and Boeriana pages of his website.

Boer served for 30 years in Nigeria, during which time he observed and experienced very closely the interplay between that country’s Christians and Muslims. He developed a Christian-Muslim archive on the subject that contains extensive newspaper and magazine articles, mostly in English, but some in the Hausa language, quite a number from now defunct publications no longer available. He also gathered many conference reports and lectures both in hard and electronic format, quite a few rare documents no longer available, many of them in English, some in the Hausa language. And, of course, throughout his writing, he made grateful use of the internet with its wealth of scholarly and other documents on the subject. The archive referred to is now housed in the Special Collections at the Day Missions Collection, Yale Divinity School Library, New Haven CT, USA.

It can be accessed at

During that same time period, Boer took time to obtain his doctorate from the Free University of Amsterdam with his dissertation Missionary Messengers of Liberation in a Colonial Context: A Case Studu of the Sudan United Mission, a tome of 530 pages. This constitutes a thorough examination of the relationship of colonialism and religion in Nigeria, an issue that even today plays an important role in the Christian-Muslim struggle of that country. That study forms the backdrop to the current series you are about to examine. It provided Boer with the tools to understand the current bitter disagreements between the two. (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1979. See also the more popular summary with the title, Missions: Heralds of Capitalism or Christ? Ibadan: Daystar Press, 1984.) The text of the summary is completely available on the Boeriana page of this website.

Simultaneously, Boer studied the worldview issues that also have given shape to the interplay between these two religions. He discovered that the dualistic separation of religion and secularism, imported by Western missionaries, has shortchanged Christians in their understanding of and approach to their Muslim neighbours who tend to hold to a more comprehensive and dynamic perspective on religion. And then, of course, there is the aggressive Nigerian Muslim attitude towards da’wah or missionary outreach, a right they claim for themselves but deny to others.

Boer has done thorough research for which academics praise him. His academic background and life experience have fully equipped him for this series. But, a natural free-lancer, he has taken freedom in his use of popular language and expressions, sometimes breaking out into humorous bylines in Hausa or Nigerian English. So, academic-level research; personal expression. Sometimes humorous; sometimes very personal. As one reviewer put it, "Boer writes as he speaks." Not quite, perhaps, but close – sometimes!

Please pay serious attention to the subject of ARCHIVES as explained under Miscellaneous Notes on the HOME page. Find it by the use of the ^F function on that page.

The Series: Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations

Author's Preliminary Comments on the series:

This series of studies deals with Christian-Muslim relations. Though I concentrate on Nigeria, it is Nigeria as a case study with global implications.

The flow of events in Nigeria is a powerful example of how things are not to be done from either side. I expect that many Nigerians who read these monographs will feel deeply ashamed of the violence they unleash on each other in the name of their respective religions. They should! Especially now that their violence is perpetrated before the face of the entire world. They defile not only the name of their people, but also of their two major religions.

After 30 years in the country as a missionary and having experienced and researched all these events together with my Nigerian brothers and sisters, I need to own up to these events as much as Nigerians. Missionaries contributed to the problems in a serious and foundational way that puts me to shame as well. We have been part of the tremendous growth of the Church in Nigeria, but it cannot be denied that the way we have brought the Gospel was not "altogether lovely." The series will explain the how and why of missionary culpability.

But these studies are not written only or even primarily to embarrass Nigerians, though I hope that shame will play a constructive role here. The main purpose is to arrive at some parameters within which they can develop more positive relations with each other, relations of respect and tolerance that will allow both religions to flourish within the one nation.

These relations have been bedeviled by untold blood shed and destruction ever since the 1970s. The series describes and explains the riots themselves and the issues of confrontation. Most of the study concentrates on the opinions of Nigerian Muslims and Christians themselves by providing extensive quotations and appendices, especially from the media. Each volume deals with a separate aspect of the relationship.

This series has not been written from a perspective of superiority. I have never thought that my own country, Canada, is in better spiritual shape than is Nigeria. I largely agree with the comment by Yusufu Turaki, a prominent Nigerian Christian leader and close friend of mine. He wrote me,

I appreciate your engagement with writing [about Nigeria], but your country is in dire need of your experience. Secularism rules your society, especially in its rebellion against your culture and Christianity. Neo-paganism is rapidly replacing secularism, pluralism and Christianity. Islam is on the rise in the West. Its agenda is political, while the Western Church has imbibed too much secularism and pluralism. Your church needs your help in this area.

(Personal letter from Dr. Yusufu Turaki, March 14, 2006. For more on Turaki, go to vol. 7, chapter 7 of the Christian-Muslim series as well as to the Turaki series on the < Guest Articles > page of this website.)

Thank you, Dr. Turaki, for your confidence in me. It has been my main aim to help both the Christians and Muslims of Nigeria to come to terms with each other. I aimed at Nigeria, not because my own country does not need such help, but because I needed to complete my now 40-plus-year mission to Nigeria. Canada may have to await another prophet who devotes 40 years to it. Perhaps, like me, Canada needs its own foreigner who can somewhat stand aside from the turmoil and observe more objectively than those in the midst of the fray. In the meantime, there is plenty for Canada in between the lines of these volumes. Seek and you shall find.

These studies do away with political correctness and religious wishful thinking. We are encouraged to get real. The fatal influence and role of a soft kind of secularism in these relationships in Nigeria come across very pointedly. The weak inheritance of a dualistic gospel transmitted by Christian missions also is explained and constitutes a major reason for confusion in Nigeria. Muslim aggressiveness is another major reason.

What This Series Seeks to Accomplish

Some of these goals will be implied, not argued.

Publication / Distribution Info:

Original PublishersEssence Publishing Company
 A Print-On-Demand Company
 Belleville ON, Canada
Publishers in NigeriaACTS – Africa Christian Textbooks
 (free of charge – volume by volume)
 (free of charge – volume by volume)
 Here, right where you are!

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – The Standoff





Nigeria’s Decades of Blood (1980-2002), volume 1

2003 Summary Notes – originally on back cover


This book tells you what is happening in a country where fifty million Muslims face fifty million Christians – Nigeria. Over the last twenty years, rivers of blood have flowed into the abyss. This book describes Nigeria’s religious riots and how it all happened – the killings, the violence, the arson of churches and mosques, homes and businesses.

The book answers these questions:

Author’s 2015 Explanation

This book starts with the year 1980. The above questions about the who and how should, of course, go back way beyond 1980. There was the Nigerian Civil War in 1969-1971 that dealt with similar issues. Even before that, the independence struggle against colonialism and the post-colonial decade in between, all of them were marked by Christian-Secular-Muslim tensions. Some Ibos have castigated me seriously for not including those earlier phases of the struggle. I can understand their frustration with me, though they should know that I was somewhat personally involved in the Ibo massacres in 1966, the year of my arrival in the country. I helped many of them escape from the Middle Belt to Cameroons and had a gun pointed at my temple. I had decided that I could not improve on all that had been written about those earlier years already.

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – Historical Background

Chapter 3 – Interpretations of the Riots

Chapter 4 – Key Personalities and Organisations




Muslims: Why the Violence?, volume 2

2004 Summary Notes


This Volume 2 in the series extensively covers Muslim opinions and evaluations of Nigeria’s religious riots. An abundance of quotations allows Muslims to speak for themselves. This will be counterbalanced by the Nigerian Christian interpretation in Volume 3. Subsequent riots can be studied from the author’s Companion CD-Rom.

From back cover of hard copy edition:

These are the questions this book answers from the Muslim point of view. This monograph is the second in the series Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations. It covers extensively Muslim opinions and evaluations of Nigerian riots. An abundance of quotations allows Muslims to speak for themselves.

Vol. 1 describes the Nigerian riots themselves. Vol. 3 will give the Nigerian Christian perspective on these riots. Later volumes will deal with other issues that cause friction between the two religions. The overall aim of this series is to help both constituencies work towards a solution of which both will be proud.

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – Christian Self-Critique

Chapter 3 – The Perceived Muslim Spirit of Domination

Chapter 4 – A Menu of Explanations

Chapter 5 – The Perceived Role of Government

Chapter 6 – Explanations for Specific Riots




Christians: Why this Muslim Violence?, volume 3

These are the questions this book answers from the Nigerian Christian point of view. The many quotations ensure that you hear the genuine voice of Nigerian Christians. Reading the Nigerian Muslim perspectives in vol. 2 also will help you develop a balanced point of view.

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – The Muslim View of Secularism

Chapter 3 – Wholism: The Muslim Heart

Chapter 4 – The Unholy Triad: Christianity, Colonialism and Secularism

Chapter 5 – The Neutrality Equation

Chapter 6 – The Constitution: Secular or Multi-Religious?

Chapter 7 – A Discordant Note: Secular, Modernist, Marxist Muslims

Chapter 8 – Concluding Remarks




Muslims: Why We Reject Secularism, volume 4

It may surprise you that I, a Western Christian missionary, invite all my secular and Christian friends to openly and sympathetically consider Muslim arguments against secularism. These arguments reach far beyond the one country Nigeria to encompass the entire globe. They have direct implications for current relations between the Muslim world and the West. It is almost inconceivable that anyone who has carefully thought through this Muslim perspective, would even consider secularism as the solution to the so-called "Muslim problem" in the world. Allow me to serve as the "devil’s advocate" by inviting you to ask yourself: Which is the greater problem—Islam or secularism?

This volume explains why Muslims generally reject with great fervor the unholy triad of secularism, colonialism and Christianity, three forces that have allegedly joined forces to destroy Islam. I have once again included many quotations and appendices to allow you once again to hear the voice of Muslims themselves. Positively, the discussion also explains the wholistic Muslim social approach to religion, an approach with certain formal parallels to Neo-Kuyperianism, the school of Christianity to which I subscribe.

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – The Christian Push for Secularity

Chapter 3 – Wholistic Christianity

Chapter 4 – Unravelling Some of the Confusion

Chapter 5 – Dualism & Secularism versus Wholism

Chapter 6 – Selected Pillars of a Christian Worldview

Chapter 7 – Political & Economic Dimensions

Information About Appendices & Companion CD-ROM




Christians: Secularism – Yes and No, volume 5

A basic challenge today is the question of Islam versus Secularism. It is a major factor in the 9/11 debacle. Volume 4 of this series discloses the majority Nigerian Muslim rejection of secularism. This volume five contains two Christian approaches to the same issue: that of Nigerian Christians and the more wholistic approach of Neo-Kuyperianism, also known as "Neo-Calvinism." Both approaches were hammered out in the course of politico-religious struggles. One seeks refuge in the face of a Muslim community that reacts to threats. The other developed a wholistic pluralistic alternative stand against an oppressive and intolerant "liberal" secularism. The Neo-Kuyperian response to secularism today evokes the consent, not to speak of admiration, even of the spiritual descendants of these early "liberals" as well as of Christians from around the world. The two approaches, the Nigerian Christian and the Neo-Kuyperian, are not pitted against each other here. The latter is brought in to supplement and deepen the approach most current in Nigeria.

This series is a case study of the general global crisis in the relations between Christianity, Islam and Secularism. As such, it has serious relevance for all who are interested in these relationships—and today, who isn’t? If you are reading this, you must be!

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – Sharia Described

Chapter 3 – Sharia Development in Nigeria

Chapter 4 – Hope, Realization, Disappointments

Chapter 5 – Constitution, Culture, Democracy

Chapter 6 – Muslim Critique and Opposition

Chapter 7 – Women's Issues and Human Rights

Information About Appendices & Companion CD-ROM




Muslims: Why Muslim Sharia Law, volume 6

This volume is number six of the series Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, and the third to present the majority Nigerian Muslim voice. It explains why Muslims want to revive Muslim Law or Shari’a. It is in line with their rejection of secularism. They are angry at how colonialism has consciously undermined their religion and has tried to replace it with what they consider a cheap and unrealistic secularism. Secularism is seen as the cause for the disintegration of Western culture, especially its moral degradation. So why force it on others?

Boer, the author of the series and proprietor of this website, has lived in Northern Nigeria’s Middle Belt for 30 years and has developed some understanding for the Christian-Muslim struggle going on there. In addition, he wrote a doctoral dissertation on the role of missions in colonialism in Northern Nigeria. These factors give him a degree of authority on that scene.

This book and, in fact, this entire series is unique in that a Christian missionary tries to get into the heart of Nigerian Muslims, to understand them critically and sympathetically and, at times, go to bat for them. It presents a serious challenge to Christian readers.

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 2 – The Nature of Sharia

Chapter 3 – Sharia and Other Legal Systems

Chapter 4 – Miscellaneous Christian Objections and Problems

Chapter 5 – Christians and Government

Chapter 6 – Wilson Sabiya

Chapter 7 – Yusufu Turaki

Chapter 8 – Plateau State and COCIN Church

Chapter 9 – Postscript

Information About Appendices & Companion CD-ROM





Christians: Why We Reject Muslim Law, volume 7

In this volume, even more than in the earlier ones, you will hear the voice of Nigerian Christians under duress and pressure from their Muslim neighbours – and sometimes from their erstwhile friends. Their voice is loud and clear – and usually reasonable. Admittedly, not always right on. Why prefer secular to Muslim law? This preference is at least partially due to not having experienced the force of secular law as we do in places like Canada, where it is putting on the screws slow but sure. And what is the relationship between secular law, Christian law and Muslim law? The Christian attitude is based less on principle than on many years of bitter experience – and a degree of ignorance about the real long-run nature of secularism.

But the arguments for Muslim law in Volume 6 seem equally powerful, right and reasonable. So what gives?

These two volumes, six and seven, shed light on these two contradictory but apparently reasonable quests. These two quests together form a case study of Christian-Muslim struggles for leadership. It sheds light also on the reason they do not simply adopt an attitude of live and let live. Here the Achilles’ heel of multi-culturalism and multi-religion is exposed. Political correctness, their silent ally, in its effort to sweep it all under the carpet, has only prolonged the bloodshed. And yet we cannot solve the problems without either "multi-."

Title Page and Preliminaries

Chapter 1 – General Introduction

Chapter 2 – Introduction to Part 2

Chapter 3 – Worldview Issues

Chapter 4 – Religious Issues

Chapter 5 – Politics and Religion

Chapter 6 – Sample Political Issues

Chapter 7 – Human Rights and Responsibilities

Chapter 8 – Family and Gender Issues

Chapter 9 – Banking and Religion

Chapter 10 – Sharia and Other Legal Considerations

Chapter 11 – Farewell!

Appendices List

Appendices 70-105 (Part 2)




Christians and Muslims: Parameters for Living Together, volume 8, part 2

This is the eighth and final member of this 8-volume series. The preceding volumes deal with violence, secularism, sharia (Muslim law) and related subjects. The volumes alternate between Christian and Muslim perspectives.

This final volume offers parameters for the two religious communities to live together, parameters based on the foregoing as well as on the worldview of the author that is amply described.

At a superficial reading, some Christian readers may well be shocked at what they might perceive as a Christian "giving in" to Muslim demands. A more thoughtful read will show a balanced perspective that takes seriously the principles promoted by all, namely democracy and pluralism.

Publisher's Interview with Boer

"Meet Our Authors," Essence News, March 2010.

Comments on this series:

From the frontline trenches of the struggle:

I sincerely thank you so much for taking pain to go through my deep provocative writings (in volume 7). I enjoyed the most your comments and questions, which made my writings and ideas come alive. More importantly, your pointing out the areas of Christian weaknesses only go to strengthen our cause. Bravo!

The Rev. Prof. Dr. Yusufu Turaki,
Former General Secretary of the Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA)
Former Principal of the JOS ECWA Theological Seminary
Former Vice President of the Nigerian Christian Association

From academia:

"The research done here is amazing."

Prof. Dennis Danielson (PhD, Stanford University),
Head of English Dept., University of British Columbia
Author of books on the poet Milton and on issues in the history of Astronomy

"Well done on this writing project. Very impressive and useful."
Dr. Timothy Palmer, Theological College of Northern Nigeria

"Correspondence between Ahmad Yahya and Boer."

From the business:

"We certainly want to be involved in the distribution of this set that is of growing importance to Nigeria. We would also like to distribute the Companion CD…."

Dr. Sidney Garland,
Executive Director, Africa Christian Textbooks, Jos, Nigeria

From the street:

"The books went well at the…Tribunal Hearing, where both Christians and a few Muslims bought them. Some people promised that they will mail you to tell you did a very sound research about the religious problems in Nigeria. I should commend you on a good job! Some who could not get copies, have been calling me all this while…."

Numshi Augustine,
Nigerian Retailer

From a reader of the Companion CD-ROM:

"The CD, sir, is a gift of a lifetime. It's a whole library you are donating to me and humanity."

Nasir Baba,
PhD Candidate, Zamfara State, Nigeria

"I chose to buy your books with cash (as opposed to downloading them free-of-charge from because your work is too valuable to be gotten free." – Rotimi Fabiyi, a post-graduate student, Lagos, May 3, 2017.

Thank you very much for still remembering me and trying to educate me the more with your wonderful and interesting books. Things are very tough for us here and we are just trusting God for survival. My church St. Stephen's Anglican Church was demolished by the Government of Zamfara state on 19th of January 2016. Just last Sunday, 15 of our people were killed in Kabogo Jiji in Sangeiku area of our evangelism by the Fulani people. – Bishop John Garba Danbinta, Gusau, Zamfara State Nigeria – March 8, 2016.

I got a copy of your book Christians and Muslims: Parameters for Living Together…. It is well researched and well presented. Thank you for this precious gift. I will certainly use it in my classes here at Biola University and also in Africa. – Moussa Bongoyok, Biola University, California. October 22, 2015.

I have just completed reading the entire set of books in your Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, focusing on Nigeria, and found the material to be extremely balanced, especially coming from someone with a Christian background. However, you failed to consider the nonbelievers' points of view regarding the religious problems in Nigeria. I send you a copy of one of my own contributions to the debate, from an atheist's viewpoint. It has not been previously published. (Also search for my name on the Internet for further material.) – Gilbert Alabi Diche, Jos, in letter – Sept. 10, 2015.

Comments from Khaled Maiwada Abdulsalam, in a letter dated March 10, 2015.

Palmer, Timothy. Review of Christians and Muslims: Parameters for Living Together. Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, vol. 8. TRC* 55, Sept/2011 (pp. 38-40).

"I am a fan of your website and writings. I taught Issues in Christian-Muslim Relations at the postgraduate level here at TCNN last semester and we used your series. Thank you for your contribution to the Body of Christ, especially here in Nigeria." -- Chentu Dauda, July 25, 2011

Personal Comments from Bill and LaVerne Blickley, racial peacemakers, Grand Rapids, Michigan, January 10 and 17, 2010.

Bowers, Paul. "A Review of the CD Companion for the Muslim-Christian Relation series." BookNotes for Africa, 2014. The BookNotes has published short reviews of each of the volumes in the series. Professor Daniel McCain, an American scholar in Nigeria, wrote some of these reviews.

The author served for many years in Nigeria. This resource represents the concluding component of his 9-volume series on Christian-Muslim relations in Nigeria (the other volumes have all been previously reviewed in BookNotes). The content here includes in digital format each of the eight printed volumes, plus various appendices not found in those volumes, together with a trove of supplementary material relevant to the entire series. The author calls particular attention to what he terms the "monster" folder on the CD, which makes available "thousands of additional articles" supportive of the larger project. The CD may be copied and distributed without limitations. Given the nature of the material, theological libraries in Nigeria will certainly want to ensure that they have a copy, as will researchers anywhere focused on Muslim-Christian relations in Africa.

Den Boggende, Bert. Review of Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, 8 vols. in Fides et Historia, Winter/Spring, 2009, pp. 90-92.

Den Boggende, Bert. "Secularism and Sharia in Nigeria," Review of vols. 4-6 in CC, Oct. 12, 2009, p. 11.

Den Boggende, Bert. Review of Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. 1—Nigeria’s Decades of Blood, CC*, June 22/2009 (pp. 17-18).

Dr. Sunday Agang, a highly respected Nigerian theologian and scholar. Letter, June 20, 2006.

I was thrilled to hear from you and also glad to know that you are still working on the Nigerian Christian/Muslim situation. You are quite a blessing to us. Thank you very much for your careful and diligent work. I have been carefully analyzing and utilizing your work in my own research and writing.

Lamido R. Nawa, a critique of the series sent by email from Bible Research Enter, Karu (Nasarawa State, Nigeria), n.d.

Unfortunately, two attempts to contact the brother were unsuccessful.

Articles Related to the Above Series*

The essays in this section were originally written for inclusion in the Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations series, but, for various reasons, including those of space and economy, did not make it. They nevertheless contain read-worthy materials. They were written as part of that series and assume familiarity with it. The same with the many abbreviations. Go to the "List of Abbreviations" on this page and you will find practically all of them there.

From the point of view of proper scholarship, I should have doggedly done due diligence and retraced it all, but that would have been almost impossible without extensive travel, including various places in Nigeria and, very important in this context, Yale University, where the hard copies of many of the documents on which the entire series is based, lodge. They are included here simply because they contain much that is valuable. I judge it better to publish these materials in their imperfect – and somewhat annoying – state than to discard them.

I remind you that these papers were written before 2008. Some of this material has been overtaken by events. Nigeria’s current scourge, Boko Haram, did not yet exist. Nevertheless, they are valuable for researchers.

References to my other writings in these articles can be followed up by visiting them on the same website that you are currently visiting. Many of them are reproduced on this website on one of three pages: Boeriana, Kuyperiana or Islamica. The series itself, of course, is found just above this section.

These articles do not stand on their own; they lean heavily on volume 8-2, but their content and structure are very different. Whereas 8-2 represents the voice of the "Chairman" – me – of the "seminar," referring to the series, the articles in this section represent Nigerian voices. That fact gives them a very different sound.

As to their leaning on 8-2, for the meaning of abbreviations and foreign words you will have to turn there. The same goes for the Bibliography data, an important feature you need to be aware of. The most unique feature of these articles is their appendix structure. The entire section consists of appendices – three root appendices comprising the chapters of the section, with each generating its own "sub-appendices." I readily acknowledge that appendices without reference to prior textual material is hardly conventional. However, turning them into chapters would have required the renumbering of the other appendices in their lineup not only, but also throughout the texts, a task that would have required numerous other changes and demand more time than I am prepared to devote to it at this point. So, I expect that you will turn to 8-2 where the details of this structure are more fully explained, especially to pages 24-28 and 411-416. Be sure to go there. It is not merely a good idea to do so; it is imperative for understanding this volume.

The only thing in 8-2 that no longer holds true is that these articles are now easily accessible to anyone with access to this website; they are no longer restricted to the Companion CD. That I offer to you as good news. I hope you will make good use of it, especially if you are Nigerian. Now you have easier access to the actual direction in which Nigerians, both Christians and Muslims, would like to see their future move in their own words.

The above paragraph does not mean that CD is now useless. Far from it. It remains the extensive library for which people have praised it. Apart from the series, it still contains all those thousands of articles you will have a hard time finding anywhere else. I cannot promise it will be available indefinitely, but will do my best.

Though these articles are being published several years after the terror unleashed by Boko Haram, they were originally written prior to that phase of the Nigerian struggle. I have decided to leave it at this for a next generation of writers and have every confidence that energetic Nigerian scholars, again, both Christians and Muslims, will step up to the plate to do the required research and serve Nigeria with the helpful advice she desperately needs with respect to that movement. I offer these appendices and, indeed, this entire series as a helpful, if not a necessary background to that pursuit.

"Parameters for Living Together: Nigerian Voices"*



APPENDIX 2 – Secularity a Foreign Notion

APPENDIX 3 – Monday Quarterbacking, etc.

APPENDIX 4 – Reaction to the Zamfara Declaration

APPENDIX 5 – Muslim Relationship with and Attitude towards Common Law, etc.


APPENDIX 7 – BZ Muslim Revival and Education, etc.

APPENDIX 8 – Monday Discourse with Dr. Aliyu Tilde

APPENDIX 9 – Negotiating Identity and Representation

APPENDIX 10 – BZ Da’wa: Muslim Mission

APPENDIX 11 – Imam, Pastor in Joint Walk to Peace

APPENDIX 12 – Strategy for Promoting Religious Tolerance Between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria

APPENDIX 13 – Address by His Excellency, Alhaji (Dr.) Abdullahi Adamu

APPENDIX 14 – Kano Govt Reveals Plans of Militants vs Christians

APPENDIX 15 – Islam's Forsaken Renaissance

APPENDIX 16 – BZ Muslim Dialogue Issues

APPENDIX 17 – Desirability of Inter-religious Dialogue

APPENDIX 18 – Philosofaith: Propagating By Manners, etc.

APPENDIX 19 – Joint Declaration on the Freedom of Religion and the Right to Conversion

APPENDIX 20 – Issues of Majority and Census

APPENDIX 21 – The Islamic Movement: Revisiting the Issue

APPENDIX 22 – The Phantom Crescent, etc.

APPENDIX 23 – BZ Government, Politics and Economics

APPENDIX 24 – Sharia – What Really Is It?

APPENDIX 25 – Leadership as a Trust: Its Role in Sustaining a Viable Democratic Culture in Nigeria

APPENDIX 26 – CBN Okays First Islamic Bank, etc.

APPENDIX 27 – Human and Other Rights Taken from Shariah: The Misunderstood Legal System

APPENDIX 28 – Kano Leaders Sleepless Over Rising Crime Rate

APPENDIX 29 – Judicial Ethics in Islam

APPENDIX 30 – Jihadi A Musulunci

APPENDIX 31 – Communique of First National Inter-faith Forum on Corruption

APPENDIX 32 – Muslim Security Concerns (Mostly AZ), etc.

APPENDIX 33 – BZ Muslims on Secularism, etc.

APPENDIX 34 – Nigeria: Shari'ah – Surmounting the Tall Obstacles

Jan H. Boer: APPENDIX 35 – Christian Proposals and Solutions

APPENDIX 36 – Religious Uprising in Kaduna State, an Islamic Jihad

APPENDIX 37 – National Political Reform Conference: A Realistic Agenda?

APPENDIX 38 – Christians on Secularism

APPENDIX 39 – The Christian Mood

APPENDIX 40 – Prayer and the Nations

APPENDIX 41 – Christian Views on Politics and Government

APPENDIX 42 – We Reject Violence Against Christians

APPENDIX 43 – Double Standards As Bane of the Jos Crisis, etc.

APPENDIX 44 – Still on the Okigbo Report

APPENDIX 45 – BZ Security and Compensation Issues

APPENDIX 46 – Miscellaneous BZ Christian Proposals to Government

APPENDIX 47 – Repositioning Religion, Faith And Ethics For A Sustainable Economic Transformation Of The Nigerian People

APPENDIX 48 – BZ National Unity Concerns

APPENDIX 49 – Communique from the First International Conference of Christian-Muslim Relations , etc.

APPENDIX 50 – Syncretism and Trichotomy

APPENDIX 51 – Christian Mosque Building Aids Unity With Nigerian Muslims

APPENDIX 52 – The Sultan, CEDAW and Our Values

APPENDIX 53 – Wheel Chair Ministry

APPENDIX 54 – Sharia: the Politics of Control

APPENDIX 55 – Southern States Embrace Muslims

APPENDIX 56 – Sultan: I’ll Partner CAN to End Religious Crisis

APPENDIX 57 – Please Save Nigeria

APPENDIX 58 – Major General Chris Alli’s Proposals

APPENDIX 59 – Religious Factors

APPENDIX 60 – Email from John Danbinta to Jan H. Boer

APPENDIX 61 – The Eyn Concept of Pacifism and Its Relevance to the Nigerian Context

APPENDIX 62 – Don’t Let Them Do This to Us: A Message to Nigerian Youths

APPENDIX 63 – The Search for Terrorists: A Case Study of the Council of Ulama of Nigeria

APPENDIX 64 – Community leaders advise on crime

APPENDIX 65 – Proposals to Religious Leaders

APPENDIX 66 – The Downslide Relationship between Christians and Muslims in Jos and Kaduna

APPENDIX 67 – Civil Society Political Consolidation And The Challenges Of Ethno-Religious Conflicts: Proposals For A Contextual Conflict Resolution In Nigeria

APPENDIX 68 – Relations, Dialogue and Co-operation during the BZ Era, etc.

APPENDIX 69 – This Is a Moral Issue, a National Issue, an Election Issue!

Bibliography for "Parameters for Living Together: Nigerian Voices"*

The indented articles below were originally written for inclusion in the various volumes of Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, but they did not make it. They nevertheless contain read-worthy materials. They were written as part of that series and assume familiarity with it not only, but the bibliographical sources in these papers are scattered throughout that series and are not complete here. I regret that inconvenience, but you are richer with these documents as they are than without them. Please say, "Thank you."

"More on Riots and Their Causes."

"Religious Statistics in Nigeria." May, 1998.

"Christian Objections to the Shari’a." Apr/1998 (pp. 1-44).

"Dawa: Muslim Missiology" (pp. 1-36).

"Oppose Worldviews: Secularism vs Wholism" (pp. 1-6).

"The Perceived Role of Governments" (pp. 4).

"Points of Friction between Nigerian Christians and Muslims." 1996.


Centres, Organizations, Books/lets, Articles, Lectures, Comments, Correspondence*

NOTE: The history, origin or occasion of some of the articles and lectures in this bibliography are lost in history, at least partially due to our international moving about. I provide you with the most complete information available.

But for those using the Boer papers in the Yale archives, I can assure you that most items listed here can be found there, with the exception of some of the materials written, to my embarrassment, on scratch paper. I had a choice between discarding them or face the embarrassment!

Items in this section followed by an * are explained under the heading “Abbreviations” on this page.


A Center of Christian-Muslim Engagement for Peace and Justice..., Chicago.

For many years LSTC has used Chicago's many cultures and various faiths to teach students how to witness to God's love in Christ Jesus while understanding and respecting the faiths of Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and neighbors from other faith traditions. The seminary has long been teaching courses on Jewish contributions to Christian thought and since 1991 has offered courses on Islam and Christian-Muslim relations. Over the years, LSTC has been privileged to welcome Muslims from around the world who come to study for advanced degrees with concentrations in interfaith studies.

Jan H. Boer, Retooling Our Approach to Sharia: A Wholistic and Pluralistic Perspective. Sixth Adeolu Adegbola Memorial Lecture delivered on May 11, 2011, at the Institute of Church & Society, Ibadan, Nigeria.

The late Bishop Adeolu Adegbola was a man with wide-ranging interests and sympathies. The fact that this annual series of lectures normally focuses on development and poverty reduction is reflective of one of his major preoccupations.

For reasons I will not take time to explain, this lecture has a different focus, namely the issue of how we handle the sharia challenge. This, too, was one of his strong concerns.

Though the sharia issue appears to have died down, a perusal of the internet indicates that the issue is still ongoing and causing headlines right up into 2011.

Appendix to “Retooling Our Approach to Sharia”



Jan H. Boer, blog "ChristianMuslimWorld."

"Niqab, Culture and Immigration," November 1, 2015.

"Religion Is the Reason for Conflict." Maclean’s, June 1, 2015, p. 7.

"Headscarves: Secularism vs Islam." CC*, 2003. See also Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. 9: Companion CD*, Dec/2013 (9 pp).

"Islam Correcting Reformed Christians." Unpublished letter to The Banner, June 15, 2011.

"The Muslim Side of Things." A speech given at First Baptist Church, Vancouver, February 2011.

"Thoughts about Islam and Christianity." Six questions from the Editor of Christian Courier (CC)*:

The Editor stipulated a limit of 750 words for each entry. Two different writers were assigned the same topic, but they were not to consult with each other or compare notes. Both questions and answers were published once a month, beginning with September 13, 2010.

What are the most striking similarities and difference between the religion of Islam and Christianity? Sept. 13/2010 (p. 12).

Is the religion of Islam a threat to Christianity and Western societies? Oct. 11/2010 (p. 12).

What are some frequent misconceptions about Islam and how do we counter them? Nov. 8/2010 (p. 14).

How does the Quran say women should be treated, and does this conform to or contradict what is practiced in many Muslim countries or cultures? Dec. 13/2010 (p. 16).

What can Christians learn from Islam? Jan. 10/2011 (p. 12).

How can Christian witness effectively to Muslims? Feb. 14/2011 (p. 12).

"Niqab, Culture, Immigration." Letter to Editor of June 4, 2010.

"Www: Wholistic World Witness." Lecture presented at Missions Fest, Jan/2008, Vancouver, Canada. Available on CD from Missions Fest or e-mail Or contact Boer via

"Relating to Muslims in a Post-9/11 World." Speech given at First Baptist Church, Vancouver, Sept. 14, 2008. Published in FirstNEWS, Sept. 14-21, 2008.

"Confused Archbishop." Unpublished Letter to the Editor of the Vancouver Sun, January 1, 2007., a blog I ran for a short while.

"Good Job," Letter to Editor, Aver, December 2006, p. 4.

"Letter from Iranian President Mahmoud to President Bush Jr." VS, May 2006.

"Introducing a Christian Alternative to Secularism." Lecture presented to an Inter-Faith Dialogue, organized by the International Centre for Gender and Social Research, Rayfield-Jos, Nigeria, Feb 9/2005 (pp. 12).

"Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations: Introduction to the Project." Lecture delivered at the Theological College of Nigeria, Bukuru, Nigeria. Jan/2005 (pp. 11).

"Arab Slavery – The Other Side." Letter to VS in response to an article on African slavery (February 28, 2004, C4).

"Christian-Muslim Relations in Nigeria." BC Christian, July 2003

"Nigerian Muslims and the Miss World Pageant." TRB,* No. 39, March/2003 (pp. 36-43); Woord & Daad*, No. 386, Summer/2003 (pp. 25-29). A slightly different version: "The Anatomy of Miss World." CC*, March 3/2003 (pp. 12-13).

Nigerian media reports on the Miss World riots of 2002.

"Comment, Notes and Articles about the Miss World Pageant."

NOTE: This file is included on this page for the benefit of researchers in this very interesting Miss World Pageant. It contains a wealth of newspaper and online articles on the subject you are not likely to find anywhere else.

It begins with the opening volley of John Balogun, who, as you can read here and in the rest of his article further down in this file, was utterly dismayed by my "shameless ignorance." Well, read it for yourself.

I do warn you, that since these are notes and articles imported from other sources, one does not always have control over their final format. You will see what I mean as you proceed. Enjoy your research.

This file includes a rough outline of the "Miss World Pageant" article. Though it is not exact, I leave it for you so you can check out the subjects covered. In spite of its rough nature, it can help you determine whether or not to proceed with your research here.

A Rejoinder to Dr. Jan H. Boer's Article: The Anatomy of Miss World. By John Balogun *
I read the above article written by one Dr. Jan H. Boer with utter astonishment and helplessness. I couldn't help marveling at the confident manner Dr. Boer displayed his shameless ignorance of Islam. Mine is not a long meaningless grammar, rather an attempt to draw Dr. Boer's attention to some avoidable misconceptions that polluted his articles...Details

Ike Akporji, a Nigerian in the USA: Your article on the above subject is the most thoughtful and insightful analysis that I have ever seen on the Nigerian Christian-Islamic relationship. You are doing a wonderful work from your own corner of the earth and you are appreciated. I am currently residing in the US and I need information on the summary of all the riots in Nigeria in the past few decades. I’d appreciate your help.

Thanks for such a courageous work. Thanks for clearly indicating that the volumes will eventually make a book, because you can only appreciate them as a whole. Then again, thanks for breaking them up in volumes, because they are easier to read in that format, and the break you get allows you to ruminate over what you’ve just read. The amount of work and time you put in was easily appreciated by the reader. I like the vernacular. It adds a certain flavor to it that nothing else could have.

I actually tried reading it not as a neutral observer, but as a Muslim, which is like an inverse proportion for me. Suddenly the pro-Islam volume didn’t sound very pro. The rational person that you are got in the way a little bit. But not a bad trait, I must add. Or I am I too Christian/Western to get it?

– (Personal correspondence 2005-2006)

"Western-Christian-Muslim Relations in the Current Crisis: A Christian Challenge." Woord & Daad,* No. 380, Winter/2002 (pp. 24-28); CC, May 20, 2002.

"Nigerian Islam vs Secularism." Woord & Daad,* No. 379, Autumn/2002 (pp. 20-24); REC Focus*, No. 2, Sept/2002 (pp. 35-43).

"Christianity, Islam, and the Secular West." Perspectives,* Aug-Sept/2002 (pp. 14-18).

"Western-Christian-Muslim Relations in the Current Crisis." CC,* May 20, 2002.

"Christian-Muslim: Who Is to Blame?" Letter to Editor, Vancouver Sun, December 14, 2001.

Ladan, Muhammad T. and Boer, Jan H. "The Voice of Islam," CC, Nov. 26, 2001.

"The Christian-Muslim Standoff in Nigeria."

"Islam vs Secularism: The Nigerian Muslim Radical Position." Paper delivered at the West Michigan Theological Society, Grand Rapids, MI, March 21, 2001.

"Christian-Muslim Relations in Nigeria." CC,* 2001?, pp. 4.

"The Nigerian Christian-Muslim Standoff: Some Underlying Issues." TRB,* No. 33, March/2000, pp. 4-23. TCNN website:

"Muslim Evangelism in Nigeria." Lecture at Calvin College, Jan/2000 (pp. 13).

"Secularism and Islam-Shari’a." Letter to a faculty member of School of World Missions, Pasadena, California – 2000

"Sharia Research File—Notes and Articles," 1999-2000 (284 pp.)

"A Tragedy Of Wasted Opportunity: Two Decades Of Religious Violence In Nigeria." Paper delivered at the West Michigan Theological Society, Grand Rapids, MI, June 18, 1999.

"The Last Crusade." Hand-written notes associated with a video of the same title, around 1999.

"My Dear Salisu," correspondence with a Muslim student, 1998.

"Christian-Muslim Relations in Nigeria." Lecture at King’s University College, Edmonton, Oct/1995 (pp. 17).

"Islam in Nigeria." A deputation lecture, Aug/1995 (pp. 5).

Letter to Yakubu Masoyi about Bitrus Sadiq. Jan. 9/1995.

Brief Report on Christian-Muslim Conference, November 9, 1993.

"Report on Verification Journey." For KAMA, Apr/1992 (pp. 3).

Christianity and Islam under Colonialism in Northern Nigeria. Jos, Nigeria: ICS, 1988. In dialogue with Professor A. B. Fafunwa, a former Nigerian Muslim Minister of Education.

"Muslim Hypocrisy." Letter to Editor, Globe & Mail, June 11, 1984.

"Enoch." Published in a Christian Reformed Sunday School paper during the late 1970s.

Notes on Secularism – 2 manilla envelopes in the Yale archives

Organizations and Centres

The Programme for Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa (PROCMURA), Nairobi, Kenya.

PROCMURA is the one and only pan-African Christian organisation with a specific focus on Christians' constructive relations with Muslims in witness and for peace and peaceful co-existence.

Vision Statement: A continent where Christian and Muslim communities in spite of their differences, work together for justice, peace and reconciliation, towards the holistic development of the human family and the environment.

Mission Statement: Faithful Christian witness to the Gospel in an interfaith environment of Christians and Muslims that respects the spirit of good neighbourliness and Christian constructive engagement with Muslims for peace and peaceful coexistence.

Overall Goal: To see an African continent where Christians and Muslims uphold the principles of religious freedom and all that it entails; constructively relate to promote peace in the society and peaceful coexistence between Christian and Muslim communities; jointly respond to environmental challenges.

The Sanneh Institute (TSI), Accra, Ghana.

A scholarly community dedicated to the equipping and resourcing of religious leaders, scholars, academic institutions and wider African society through advanced inquiry. Deeply rooted in our traditions, we seek to inspire intellectual curiosity in the religious and non-religious other by fulfilling our commitment through research, translation work, publications, education, and engagement.

A Center of Christian-Muslim Engagement for Peace and Justice..., Chicago.

For many years LSTC has used Chicago's many cultures and various faiths to teach students how to witness to God's love in Christ Jesus while understanding and respecting the faiths of Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and neighbors from other faith traditions. The seminary has long been teaching courses on Jewish contributions to Christian thought and since 1991 has offered courses on Islam and Christian-Muslim relations. Over the years, LSTC has been privileged to welcome Muslims from around the world who come to study for advanced degrees with concentrations in interfaith studies.

Kaduna Centre for the Study of Christian-Muslim Relations, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Our Vision
A Nigeria where Christian and Muslim communities in spite of their differences work together for justice, peace and reconciliation towards the holistic development of the human family and the environment.

Courses such as
        Qur'anic Arabic Basic
        Introduction to Islam
        Islamic History

The Centre for Muslim-Christian Studies, Oxford.

We are an independent Christian-based study centre that brings together Christians and Muslims to learn from and about one another in the context of real relationships. CMCS focusses on research rather than dialogue, though dialogue naturally arises as people study or discuss together.

Mark Anderson, "Muslims, Christians and the Qur'an: A short guide exploring Muslim and Christian attitudes towards the Qur'an and its history, authority and interpretations." The Hikima Study Guides, series ed. Richard McCallum, Oxford: The Centre for Muslim-Christian Studies. See above. https://na01.safelinks....

Part of a series of short studies on a wide range of Christian-Muslim issues. An ever increasing small (so far) library.

Journal of Islamic Studies, Oxford University Press.

The Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations. Kensington NSW, Australia.

We follow the teaching of the Catholic Church on Christian-Muslim and interfaith relations, as exemplified by the recent popes in their dealings with Muslim individuals and organisations. We promote better mutual understanding between Christians and Muslims and better cooperation for the common good. Christians and Muslims share a common origin, a common destiny and a common pilgrim journey in our lives on earth to the one God, who is the Creator, Saviour and Merciful Judge of all.

Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations in Eastleigh – CCMRE

Centre for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, University of Leiden, Netherlands.

Christian-Muslim relations | (

Centre for Comparative Muslim Studies, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver. Centre for Comparative Muslim Studies - Simon Fraser University (

Engaging the mind; building communities. The Centre for Comparative Muslim Studies (CCMS) fosters academic and public discussion and understanding of Muslim societies and cultures. It shifts the analysis from the notion of a single religious landscape defined by the religion of Islam to that of Muslims of different experiences and interpretations as agents in the construction of their societies and cultures.

There is no end to centres dedicated to Christian-Muslim topics. Those on this page are only a few examples. The rest is up to you to explore.

Guest Articles*

Though most writers on this website are adherents of Reformational philosophy, this does not hold for most writers in this section of this Islamica page. In fact, many of them are not even Christians; they are either secularists or Muslims. In addition, except for Dr. Phil Ostien's, the choice of entries is very random. Islam is a world religion and worldview, encompassing all of life. So, consequently, is the literature, lectures and other documents Muslims produce. For the most part, I simply stumbled on the items included here; nothing systematic about the selection. A random selection to give you a taste of it, and a meager one at that. So, if you can't find a Muslim subject on this page, close it down and go directly to the internet, where you will find it all in unlimited format.

The only topic exhausted on this page is the Nigerian struggle between Christians and Muslims—eight volumes, no less! And then two volumes of memoirs on the Boeriana page under the title Every Square Inch. The reason for that emphasis is that I have lived and worked in Nigeria for a full thirty years. Most of my 23 post-Nigeria years have also been devoted to Nigeria, while living in the US and, now, Canada. That's almost 53 years, by far more than most Nigerians themselves. And I am proud that our son Wiebe is carrying on our family tradition by serving Nigeria out of Lagos and is making enough impact to be interviewed numerous times by both press and television. You will find this Nigerian emphasis throughout this website.

Portal Islam—a wide-ranging source on Islamic studies. On January 1, 2020, almost 29,000 articles in English.

Philip Ostien

Governor Sani’s announcement of his sharia implementation programme exhilarated Nigeria’s Muslims, and produced tremendous pressure on the governments of other northern states to follow suit. But it aroused fear and leathing among Christians, who expected the worst; civil war was even predicted by some (Barends 2003:19; Ostien 2002:172-73). Everyone’s worst fears seemed to be confirmed by the first amputation of a hand for theft already in March 2000, and then by the stoning cases of Safiyatu Hussaini (2001 Hussaini (-2002) and Amina Lawal (2002 Lawal (-2003), which caused an uproar around the world.

----------, "The Muslim Majority in Northern Nigeria: Sects & Trends." In Abdul Raufu Mustapha and David Ehrhardt, Creed & Grievance: Muslim-Christian Relations & Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria. International Food Policy Research Institute, Boydell and Brewer, 2018, pp. 37-82.

Abdul-Fatah Koal Makinde and ----------, "Legal Pluralism in Colonial Lagos: The 1894 Petition of the Lagos Muslims to Their British Colonial Masters."

Abstract: This paper is about metropolitan Lagos—under the British only a "township", though long Nigeria's capital. From early in its history the percentage of Muslims living in Lagos has been high, somewhere around fifty percent. There is a long history of attempts by activists among the Lagos Muslims, none yet successful, to persuade the authorities pro tem to establish Sharia Courts for the use of Muslims, to which they could take their civil matters for adjudication under Islamic law. After briefly introducing Lagos, we describe one of these attempts: the 1894 petition of the Lagos Muslims to their British colonial masters, and its outcome, paying particular attention to the pluralistic legal environment in which it was made. This early petition—or rather the facts that it was made, and that it failed, all context having been forgotten—lives on in the thinking of many Nigerian Muslims today as another example of British hostility to Islam, often held to be responsible for the failure of Islamic law to thrive in the predominantly Yoruba southwest of which Lagos is a part. This paper is an attempt to restore the context, and thus perhaps to help improve the analysis of the fate of Islamic law in Nigeria's southwest (March 2012).

----------, "Percentages by Religion of the 1952 and 1963 Populations of Nigeria’s Present 36 States." Oxford Nigeria Research Network (NRN), Oxford Department of International Development, NRN Background Paper No. 1, 2012.

Fatah Kola Makinde and Philip Ostien, "The Independent Sharia Panel of Lagos State." Emory International Law Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, 24 pp. 921, 2011.

Abstract, December 18, 2011: The population of Lagos State of Nigeria is upwards of ten million. About half of this large number are Muslims. In 2002, Muslim activists in Lagos State took it upon themselves to set up what amounts to a private arbitration tribunal — the Independent Sharia Panel (ISP) of Lagos State — to which Muslims are invited to submit their civil disputes for adjudication under Islamic law. The ISP was established to fill what the activists regard as an urgent need: for some forum in Lagos State that administers Islamic law; for, over a number of years, Islamic law has effectively been eliminated as a choice of law option in the regular courts. Parts I and II of this paper describe the ISP: who is behind it; their unsuccessful efforts to persuade the Lagos State Governor and House of Assembly to establish Sharia courts for Muslims to use; the decision to establish the ISP when that effort failed; and what the ISP is and how it is getting along in the world. Part III considers the way forward for the ISP’s backers, whose goal remains the establishment of Sharia courts by the state. Their arguments that this should be required as a matter of constitutional law are found unconvincing. Rather, the authors argue, they must convince the political branches that establishing Sharia courts would be wise policy, even if not strictly required under the constitution. The paper concludes with a consideration of how this might be done and the hurdles that stand in the way.

----------, "Nigeria’s Sharia Penal Codes" (August 24, 2009). Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria, 1999-2006: A Sourcebook, Vol. IV, Chapter 4, pp. 3-21. Philip Ostien, ed. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd., 2007. Islamic Law and Law of the Muslim World Paper No. 09-81.

----------, "Jonah Jang and the Jasawa: Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria." August 2009.

---------- and Sati Fwatshak, "Northern Nigeria’s Settlement of 1960 and Why It Still Matters Today." November 2007.

---------- and Ahmed S. Garba, "Sixty Authoritative Islamic Texts in Use in Northern Nigeria." Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria, 1999-2006: A Sourcebook, Vol. V, Chapter 6, pp. 108-121. Philip Ostien, ed. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd., 2007.

Sati Fwatshak and ----------, "Northern Nigeria’s Settlement of 1960: Who Was Who." In Philip Ostien, ed., Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria, 1999-2006. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 2007.

----------, "Ten Good Things about the Implementation of Shari’a in Some States of Northern Nigeria." January 2003.

Philip Ostien and A. J. Dekker, "Sharia and National Law in Nigeria." In J. M. Otto, ed., Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslims Countries in Past and Present. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010, pp. 553-612.

For additional comments from authors, see:

----------, "Nigeria, Sharia in." Oxford Islamic Studies Online, 2012,

----------, "A Survey of the Muslims of Nigeria’s North Central Geopolitical Zone." Oxford Nigeria Research Network (NRN), Oxford Department of Internationao Development, NRN Working Paper No. (2012).

----------, "An Opportunity Missed by Nigeria’s Christians: The 1976-78 Sharia Debate Revisited." N. d.

---------- and M. J. Umaru, "Changes in the Law in the Sharia States Aimed at Suppressing Social Vices." January 1999

Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to discuss changes in the laws of Nigeria’s Sharia States, made since 1999 as parts of their programmes of Sharia implementation, with the goal of eliminating certain un-Islamic practices and other besetting 'social vices.' The essay deals with these matters under five substantive headings: Corruption, Liquor, Sexual Immoralities, Gambling, and Unedifying Media. In each case the discussion (1) begins with a discussion of the position of the Sharia on the subject in question; (2) proceeds with an outline of the statutory law on the subject in the Northern Region of Nigeria and the States into which it was subsequently divided, to 1999, bringing in Federal law as well where applicable; (3) summarises changes in the laws on the subject made in the Sharia States since Sharia implementation began in 1999; and (4) gives brief information or observations on the effects of the changes in the law. The summaries of changes in the law since 1999 make frequent reference to the documentary materials reproduced in P. Ostien, ed., Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria 1999-2006, Vol. III, Chapter 3, Part IV - where the reader will find the full texts of most of the new laws on these subjects that have been enacted in the Sharia States through 2006. A final section of the essay gives some concluding remarks.

"Philip Ostien’s Scientific Contributions." Bibliography, each with its own abstract.

---------- and Albert Dekker, "Sharia and national law in Nigeria," in Jan Michiel Otto, Sharia incorporated: A comparative overview of the legal systems of twelve Muslim countries in past and present. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010 (pp. 555-612), chapter 13.


The relations between sharia and national law in Nigeria have varied widely from time to time and from place to place within the country — which after all was first brought under a single administration only in 1914. In sections 1-4 of this paper the complex history of our subject is sketched, culminating in the programmes of 'sharia implementation' that began in 1999 in twelve of Nigeria's northern states. Sections 5-9 concentrate thematically upon the pre[1]sent day. Many details of the incorporation of sharia in the laws of Nigeria are discussed, including the Sharia Courts and the Sharia Penal and Criminal Procedure Codes now in place in the sharia states, the continuing application of uncodified Islamic personal law and other Islamic civil law throughout the north, the effects of sharia implementation on women and non-Muslims, and the constitutional questions the sharia implementation programmes raise. The conclusion, section 10, discusses the likely fate of Islamic criminal law in the sharia states, and gives some reason to think that sharia implementation has on the whole been a positive development for Nigeria.


Arab Vision, Arab Christians singing Christmas songs, Christmas - YouTube

Abraham Kuyper, On Islam. Jordan J. Ballor and Melvin Flikkema, Gen. eds. Collected Works in Public Theology. Bellingham WA: Lexham Press, on-going.

For further information, go to the < Kuyperiana > page of this website and search for Ballor and Flikkema, Gen. eds. [1]

"Christ and Mohammad." Translation and editing is shrouded in history. From Pro Rege of het koningschap van Christus, vol. 1, chapter 1. Kampen, the Netherlands: J. H. Kok, 1911.

Greg Sinclair, “The Reformers and Islam.” The Network, Christian Reformed Church.

Zwemer Center for Muslims Studies,

The Zwemer Center at Columbia International University exists to offer comprehensive courses on Islam, facilitate research, foster dialogues, offer seminars, conduct training and provide resources for effective witness and ministry among Muslims.

Harry Antonides, "Samuel M. Zwemer: A man to remember." CC, December 17, 2007 (pp. 5,6).

John Span, “Discipling former Muslims.” Academia, Summer Newsletter, Quarterly Vol. 2, 2024. (PDF)

Includes very valuable library of related materials.

Bassam Madany and Shirley Madany-Dann. St. Francis Magazine: Islamic Religion Beliefs and Practices.

The Rev. Bassam Madany (b. 1928) and his wife Shirley Madany-Dann went as missionaries to Syria in 1953, and they have served in mission to the Arab World since then. In 1958, Bassam became the Arab radio minister of the Back to God Hour (BTGH), and since then no single radio producer has had so much impact with his Christian Arabic radio programs.

Here we collect the writings of Bassam and Shirley, to honour them and their lifelong ministry.

After 2005, Bassam Madany used a pseudonym, Jacob Thomas, for his more politically focused articles. Most of these articles were published on You can find all these article by 'Jacob Thomas' here.

You are advised to search the web for innumerable sites on the Madanys. Here we have a veritable treasure of Islamic writings.

You are also urged to search for the Madanys on Youtube.

Matthew Kaeminck and Shadi Hamad with special guest Ovamir Anjum, "Does the world need a caliphate? Debating the revival of an Islamic state." Comment podcast, February 1, 2023 (1 hour and 20 min.).

The Sanneh Institute, "Christian-Muslim relations in Sub-Saharan Africa." A series of lectures by various scholars, Summer 2021. Accra, Ghana.

Nick Boisvert, "National Muslim charity launching legal challenge of Canada Revenue Agency audit, calling it Islamophobic.", April 14 ,2022.

Dr. Jan Boer, founder of this website:
Muslims complaining of islamophobia? Disagreement is NOT phobia. I disagree but do not "phoby." Islam.Besides, what of Christophobia in many if not all Muslim countries? I've lived amongst them and written a whole series of books on the subject.
CBC rejected the remark: "This comment doesn't meet our guidelines."
Boer: Above CBC comment--An example of the liberal form of islamophobia? -fearfully kowtowing to Islam. Now that is genuine islamophobia!
Nosmot Gbadamosi, "Why America's trillion-dollar war on terrorism couldn't defeat Boko Haram>." Review of Joe Parkinson and Drew Hinshaw, Bring back our girls. < >, May 1 2021.

Thomas K. Johnson, “A case for ethical cooperation between Evangelical Christians and Humanitarian Islam.” Evangelical Review of Theology, Vol. 44, no. 3, August 2020.

Ian Ritchie, "Jeremy Hinds, 'Christian-Muslim dialogue.'" April 22, 2015.

Rather than write my own views on this, it might be more helpful to refer us all to the work of a man who was one of my greatest mentors decades ago, and whose knowledge of the Qur'an, of Islam, especially in West Africa, was widely considered unparalleled at the time I met him in 1980. His name was Jeremy Hinds. He was fluent in Hausa, knowledgeable in the Arabic of the Qur'an, and had unparalleled knowledge of the sects and movements within Islam. He worked for 28 years in northern Nigeria....

Tope S. Akinyetun and Osariyekemwen I. Ambrose, "Exploring non-combative options: The role of social protection and social inclusion in addressing Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria." Submitted to Academia Letters, n.d.

Rosemary Sookhdeo, "Theological differences between Islam and Christianity." Chapter 8 from Understanding Islam from a Christian Perspective. Barnabas Aid, January-February 2021. Understanding Islam From a Christian Perspective- | Barnabas Aid (

Our pull-out series for 2021 is taken from Understanding Islam from a Christian Perspective, by Rosemary Sookhdeo, Barnabas Fund's International Director of Finance.

The following excerpts from her popular and informative book give invaluable insights into areas where the religion of Islam, which was established 600 years after Christ, has borrowed from Christianity and explains the key theological differences between the two religions.

Thomas McElwain, "Theological differences between Christianity and Islam." From Invitation to Islam: A survival guide.

Prayercast, a Christian prayer ministry. This particular website deals with a wide range of Muslim issues.

Nabeel Jabbour, a Lebanese-Egyptian-American Christian scholar, author and evangelist.

While earning a doctorate in Islamics, Dr. Jabbour's method of study was phenomenology. It is a method of study where the phenomenon is allowed to speak for itself resulting in a compassionate understanding of the phenomenon from the adherent's point of view. He did not want to project his prejudice on Islam and Muslims and come to predetermined conclusions. Instead, he learned to put on Muslim worldview lenses, to stand in their shoes, and to see the world through their eyes.

Subscribe to his blog at

Jabbour's seminary course online here:

Shehu Sani, "The game going on at Abuja right now has already been known and revealed." We-Updates Africa, July 29, 2022.

Fakiha Baig, "'When we embrace our hijab, we embrace death:' Canadian-Muslims balance faith, safety." The Canadian Press, June 27, 2021.

Eildert Mulder, "Hoe de Koran is onststaan? Daarover barst het van de tegenstrijdege verhalen." Trouw, November 17 2022.

Aysha Khan, ed., "How the Uyghur diaspora is responding to persecution in China." Creeping Sharia March 27 2020.

Salaam, friends! I'm journalist Aysha Khan, and you're reading what is normally my monthly roundup of the latest news stories about Muslims in the U.S. This time, however, I'm handing over this special edition to a group of students at Virginia's Old Dominion University. As part of their Muslims and Media course with Dr. Kristian Petersen, they're compiling a few thematic issues of Creeping Sharia. This first reading list serves as a primer on the experiences of Uyghurs in America and China.

Will Brown, "Echoes of Isil as armed groups loot priceless artefacts across Sahel: Militants allied to Al Qaeda and Islamic State have gained influence in the region." The Telegraph, March 7, 2020. An edited version also appeared in the Vancouver-based The Province, March 8, 2020.

Arewa House, Centre for Historical Documentation and Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna.

Abdul Malik Mujahid, "Islam's Manifesto of Universal Brotherhood of Human Beings." Chicago: Sound Vision Foundation, February 7, 2020.

For comments on this story, go to Boer's Blog <ChristianMuslimWorld>, Post 61.

Kalim Siddique, "The Muslim Manifesto: A strategy for survival." The Muslim Institute, London, January 2016. and

Aysha Khan, "'A long time coming': These Muslims are bringing sex abuse by sheikhs out of the shadows." RNS, January 16, 2020.

Anne-Christine Hoff, "Karen Amstrong and the Islamists."

Anne-Christine Hoff is the Dallas associate of the Counter Islamist Grid.

Jayson Casper, "Boko Haram executes pastor who turned hostage video into testimony: Beheaded Brethren leader taken captive in Nigeria said he was at peace with death because Jesus 'is still alive.'" Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2019.

Bernard-Henri Levy, "The new war against Africa's Christians." Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2019.

Josie Ensor, "Change comes slowly for Saudi Arabian women." VS, November 30, 2019, p. NP6.

"Rape of Nature" – Friday Nasiha, August 9, 2019, issue 1064.

Tacko, Mahershala, et al, "Creeping Sharia: Muslim Caucus, Sheikh Hamza Yusuf, Muslim Health Care." July 28, 2019. , a regularly appearing blog and example of one-sided Muslim complaints about life in USA, but hardly a word about the treatment of Christians and others in Muslim-majority countries.

Mohammed Maxwel Hasan, "3 Quranic lessons from animals." Sound Vision, May 3, 2019.

Sound Vision Team, "Ramadan Miscellaneous." Website Sound Vision, May 3, 2019.

Benyamin F. Intan, "Religious Freedom and the Pancasila-based State of Indonesia: A Neo-Calvinist Idea of Principled Pluralism." CTJ, April 2019, pp. 57-90.


Journal of Islamic Studies, Volume 18, Issue 2, May 2007, Pages 278-281,

"About Benyamin F. Intan: Speaker's Profile." (

Anni Cyrus, "Sharia for women: A female sharia survivor shares her story." ILFamily Institute, YouTube, November 17, 2018. AND

Jeremy Weber, "No Cheeks Left to Turn: The Double Persecution of Africa's Largest Church. Images by Gary S. Chapman." Christianity Today, November, 2018.

--------, "The 11th Annual Gaffin Lecture," Westminster Theological Seminary, March 14, 2018.

--------, "'Public Religion' and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia: An Ethnical and Sociological Analysis. New York: Peter Lang, 2006 (277 pp.). ISBN 0-8204-7603-X.

Partial review:
In 1945, with Japanese collapse imminent, Sukarno set out as the philosophy for a new nation his doctrine of five principles, Pancasila: belief in God, nationalism, humanitarianism, social justice and democracy. This doctrine defined what were to become the official guiding principles of the Republic of Indonesia and eventually its unifying ideology. At the time Islamic leaders wanted Islam to be given a more prominent role. Nationalists leaders, some of them devout Muslims, did not want Indonesia to become an Islamic state. There was in the new republic a significant minority of Protestant and Catholic Christians, as well as 'Hindu' Bali, and a very large number of the inhabitants of the old Dutch East Indies who had not yet converted to any world religion. The imperative of nationalist...

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies 2007.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

For further information about Dr. Intan see <> and scroll down.

Abdussamad Umar Jibia, "Why We Should Thank (Bishop) Matthew Kukah.", February 2019.

Rebecca S. Dali, "Displacement, Building Resilience and Data: Responding to and Documenting the Victims of the Boko Haram Insurgency in North-Eastern Nigeria.." CEO Center for Caring, Empowerment and Peace Initiatives. Presented to the U.S. Department of State, 2019 Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom.

Ben Farmer, "She confessed...How can they forgive her?" Vancouver Sun, December 28, 2018, p. NP7.

Mark Tapson, "Becoming the Strong Horse: Reviving Christian Europe." New English Review Press, December, 2018.

Naila Inavat, "Asia Bibi acquitted of blasphemy in Pakistan; freed from death row." RNS, October 31, 2019.

Protesters rally in Peshawar, Pakistan, against a Supreme Court decision Oct. 31, 2018.

Protesters rally in Peshawar, Pakistan, against a Supreme Court decision Oct. 31, 2018, that ordered the release of Asia Bibi, a Catholic mother of five who had been on death row since 2010. (AP Photo/Muhammad Sajjad)

--------, "Muslim reaction to Bible release" (not original title). RNS, December 2019. See also Boer's blog "ChristianMuslimWorld" post 80.

Yusufu Turaki, Tainted Legacy: Islam, Colonialism and Slavery in Northern Nigeria. With a foreword by Patrick Sookhdeo of BarnabasAid. Revised edition in Epub. Yusufu Turaki Foundation and Publishing, 2019. $2.99.

Anonymous, "God in the Qur'an," a review of Jack Miles, Christ: A Crisis in the Life of God. New York: Knopf, November 2018 (272 pp). Review in Kirkus Review Issue, September 1, 2018.

Jacob Wirtschafter et al, "Egypt Fights Islamic Extremism by Allowing Women Leaders at Mosques." RNS June 20, 2018.

A typical obituary of a prominent Nigerian Muslim patriarch and scholar: Khalifa Sheikh Isyaku Rabiu of Kano, Nigeria. Accessed on May 12, 2018.

Hussain Rashid, "Islamic Scholar Bernard Lewis’ Legacy of Disdain for Muslims." Religion News Service May 29 2018.

Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa, "What went wrong with the Muslims?" A review of Bernard Lewis, What went wrong? The clash between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East.

Robin de Wever,"Islamitische bankiers spreken zich uit: Wat zegt de Koran over bitcoin?" Trouw, April 10, 2018.

Aysha Khan, "A New Streetwear Line for Muslim Women Takes the Frills out of Modest Fashion." Religion News Service, March 19, 2018.

Robert Sellers, reporter, "Alliance of Virtue for the Common Good—The Washington Declaration." February 5-7, 2018.

Elizabeth Kendal, Religious Liberty and Prayer Bulletin (RLBP). Offers worldwide information about persecution and includes valuable historical archives. Religious Liberty Prayer Bulletin (

--------, "Nigeria's Conversion Crisis: Echoes of Egypt." Religious Liberty Prayer Bulletin | RLPB 439 | Wed 24 Jan 2018.

For comments on this story, go to Boer's Blog <ChristianMuslimWorld>, Post 61.
Kendal is a prolific writer on these kinds of subjects. Only a few appear here, but I strongly encourage you to check her writings out online.

--------, "Germany: Reformation or Death." Religious Liberty Prayer Bulletin | RLPB 380 |, October 19, 2016.

Abdul Raufu Mustapha and David Ehrhardt, "Creed and Grievance: Muslim-Christian Relations & Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria." West African Studies, International Food Policy Research Institute, Boydell and Brewer, 2018 (pp. 384).

Enne Koops, trans. Jan H. Boer, "Christiaan Snouck Hurgonje (1857-1936): Arabist and Islamist." Trouw, November 28, 2017.

Samuel Onyedika Nwokoro, Language Standardization and adoption among Eastern Religious Communities of Late Antiquity: A Socio-Linguistic Analysis of the Islamization of Arabic and the Arabization of Melkite Christian Theology. A dissertation submitted to the University of Copenhagen in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, June 2017 (97 pp.).

----------, "Communicating Meaningfully with Muslims: Analyzing the Melkite Language Shift in Light of Christian-Muslim Relations in Northern Nigeria." Paper written at the Theological College of Northern Nigeria, Bukuru, Plateau State, Nigeria. N.d.

Ludwig W. Adamec, "Historical dictionary of Islam. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.

Anonymous, "The Islamic Jesus: How the King of the Jews Became a Prophet of the Muslims," a review of Mustafa Akyol, Islam Without Extremes: A Muslim Case for Liberty, 2011. St. Martin's, February 2017 (288 pp.). Review in Kirkus Review Issue, December 15, 2016.

Gunmar J. Weimann, Islamic Criminal Law in Northern Nigeria: Politics, Religion, Judicial Practice. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010. A partial preview.

John Eibner, editor, contributor, The Future of Religious Minorities in the Middle East. Lexington Books, November 22, 2017.


Editorial review:

Kingsley L. Madueke, "From neighbours to deadly enemies: excavating landscapes of territoriality and ethnic violence in Jos, Nigeria." Journal of Contemporary African Studies, November 2017 (pp. 1-16).

Dionne Searcey, "Strapped with Bombs, Nigerian Girls Defy Captors and Live to Tell about It." New York Times, October 25, 2017. (Inside the world of Forced Nigerian Girl Suicide Bombers.)

Peter Vander Meulen, Co-ordinator, Reports on Peace-Making Efforts between Reformed Churches in Nigeria and Muslim Fulani Nomads. Grand Rapids: Office of Social Justice, Christian Reformed Church in North America.

Report 1

"Summary of Reflections, Observations, and Recommendations for Action." Wukari/Taraba Peace Initiative Assessment Trip, December 14-17.

Report 2

"Wukari Peace Building Consultation held at Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, September 26-29, 2017."

Matthew Kaemingk, "The Headscarf: Islam’s Gift to Western Democracy: Learning to welcome Islam is a way to relearn what democracy is about." Cardus’ Comment Magazine, Summer 2017, pp. 12-19.

Imram H. Assim, "The Positive Difference of Islam." Faith in Canada 150, Thread 123, May 10, 2017

Daniel Armstrong, "Anti-Islamophobia bill means well but problematic." VS, February 18, 2017, p. A11. This article is accessible at:

Proprietor of this website: I fully agree with Armstrong, except the "means well" bit. Perhaps the Iqra Khalid means well within the framework of Islam, but not in that of democracy and pluralism. It is a typical attempt to undermine democracy and pluralism and part of an attempt by Muslim leaders to foster Islam on the country. It is perfectly within democracy and pluralism to foster the propagation of your religion, but not to use the law and government to give protection to one religion above others.

On the same subject see also the following articles and/or websites:

David Akin, "Tory hopefuls oppose Islamophobia debate." VS, February 14, 2017. This article is accessible at: and

Growing group of Tory leadership hopefuls oppose move to have House of Commons denounce Islamophobia.

Quebec mosque attack increases odds MPs will take on the study of Islamophobia, religious hate crimes.

Barbara Kay: How long until my honest criticism of Islamism constitutes a speech crime in Canada?

Shannon Jammai-Hollemans, "Getting to Know Your Muslim Neighbors." The Banner, February 2017, p. 21. This article can be accessed at

Hamza Ahmed’s Poetry, a unique unpublished collection. Grand Rapids MI, 2017. The collection is accessible at:

John M Hubers, "A God by Any Other Name," a three-part series,, April 3-7, 2017.

"Evangelicals and Allah (Part 1): Setting the Parameters." This article is accessible at:

"Medieval & Reformation (Part 2): Responses to Islam." This article is Accessible at:

"A God by Any Other Name (Part 3): American Perspectives." This articles is accessible at:

Eric Francis, "Love of Sport Inspired Pakistani Athelete to Risk Her Life to Play." Vancouver Sun, March 11 2017. This article can be accessed at:

"World-renowned squash star hopes to blaze a trail for girls in her homeland."

Douglas Murray, "Who Will Protect Nigeria’s Northern Christians?" Spectator, February 4, 2017.

"Every week, there are more massacres, but nobody seems to mind – not even their own government." This item includes widely varying readers’ comments. It can be accessed at:

Malik Mujahid, "Talking Points & Thinking Points on Muslim Ban," from Sound Vision, an online Muslim leadership and awareness building programme. January 25, 2017.

Editor Barnabas Aid, "Can the Church Survive the Islamist Onslaught?" BarnabasAid, January 12, 2017. This article can be accessed at:

----------, "Aasia Bibi – The Scandal of Western Press Coverage." October 20, 2016. The article can be accessed at:

Sarah Eltantawi, Shari'a on Trial: Northern Nigeria's Islamic Revolution. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2017 (a partial preview).

Al Fadi, "Jihadist overcome by the love of Jesus." YouTube November 28, 2016.

Marina Nemat, "Standing up to Revolution." Cardus, Fall 2016, p. 72. This article can be accessed at:

Anonymous, "1400 Years of Inbreeding." Before It's, May 21, 2016.

Note from the proprietor of this website: This article, along with that by Nicolai Sennels below (May 2010), represents the ultimate in political incorrectness. It cannot be considered a Reformational article like most on this website, but it does reflect the insistence of Reformational philosophy on freedom of expression and resistance to political correctness. Challenges to this article are invited.

Raheem Kassam, "UK Equalities Chief, Who Popularised The Term ‘Islamophobia,’ Admits: ‘I Thought Muslims Would Blend into Britain… I Should Have Known Better.’" Breitbart London, April 10, 2016.

Dorrit van Dalen, Doubt, Scholarship and Society in 17th-Century Central Sudanic Africa. In series: Islam in Africa. Leiden: Brill, 2016. A partial preview.

Mark R. Anderson, "Understanding Christianity."

"The goal of this website is to make Christianity understandable to Muslims and correct some common misconceptions."

--------, The Qur'an in context: A Christian exploration. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2016. Reviewed by Dean Deppe, CTJ, November 2017, pp. 393-398.

Katarzyna K. Starczewska, Anti-Muslim Preaching in 16th-century Spain and Egidio da Viterbo’s Research on Islam. No. 3 in the series Rivista di Storia e Letteratura Religiosa. Editor Leo S. Olschki. Periodico quadrimestale redatto l’Universita degli Studi di Torino, 2015 (pp. 413-430).

David Thomas and John Chesworth, et al, eds., Christian-Muslim Relations: A biographical history. Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2015.

Various relevant PDF titles by Muslim authors at < ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY pdf download | OPENMAKTABA >

Mark Danner, review of Mohamedou Ould Slahi, Guantanamo Diary. New York Times, January 20, 2015. This article can be accessed at:®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article

Femi Fani-Kayodi, "The challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism in Nigeria." November 18, 2014.

Mujahid Hamza Shitu, "A review of the activities of Christian missionary, clergy 'experts' and writers on Islam in Nigeria." January 2014

----------, "An insight into the life of a prominent Christian missionary Islamicist in Nigeria: Joseph Kenny, O. P. (1936-2013)." The Annual Review of Islam in Africa, Issue No. 14, 2017.[1] [2]

Daniel E. Agbiboa, "Peace at Daggers Drawn: Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria" in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. Oxford, UK: Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. December 20, 2013 (67 pp.).

John Azumah and Lamin Sanneh, eds., The African Christian and Islam. Langham Publishing, June 2013.

This book is a collection of the papers., forming a historical survey and thematic assessment of the African Christian and Islam. In addition, key information on the introduction, spread and engagement of Islam and Christianity within 9 African countries is presented. The book closes with Biblical reflections that opened each day of the conference, providing useful examples of Christians reading the Bible in reference to Islam.

Salisu Bala, Islam and Militancy in Nigeria: An Overview of Tariqah and the Menace of Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria. Zaria, Nigeria: Arewa House Centre for Historical Documentation & Research, Ahmadu Bello University, 2013. A partial preview. AND < > < >.

Brandon Kendhammer, "Islam and the Language of Human Rights in Nigeria: "Rights Talk" and Religion in Domestic Politics." Journal of Human Rights, November 2013.

Sidney H. Griffith, The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the 'People of the Book' in the Language of Islam (Jews, Christians, and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World). Amazon, 2013.

Publisher’s introduction can be accessed at:

Clare Wilde, "The Arabic Bible before Islam." Review of Griffith’s The Bible in Arabic. Marginalia: Los Angeles Review of Books, June 10, 2014.

Thaddeus Byimui, Umaru, Toward Christian-Muslim dialogue and peace-building activities in Northern Nigeria: theological reflection. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, May 2013 (312 pp.). This document is accessible at:

Abstract: The aim of this dissertation is to examine critically the incessant inter-religious conflicts in Northern Nigeria, to identify the real causes of such conflicts and to suggest theological and practical ways to sustain peace building endeavours. Conflicts as an inevitable part of human existence can be triggered and exacerbated by numerous factors. Religion as a powerful impulse in human existence has been used to fuel conflict in Northern Nigeria. Radical religious strife, quest for more converts, colonisation, ethnicity, and perceived political domination have strengthened stereotypical views of the self and the other. Religion is closely intertwined with culture and thus central in the understanding and establishment of peace in society; continue to play paradoxical role in the locality. Religion can be a cause of conflict and a way of conflict resolution. In Nigeria religion has failed to establish the peace which it has claimed to promote, because deep historical feuds have found expression in religion, and religion is thus at the core of the strife as experienced in contemporary Northern Nigeria. The theology of the Second Vatican Council, in which the Roman Catholic Church reflects on its self-understanding as a community and its role in the world, provides a first model for the encounter between Christianity and other religions in mutual understanding. This thesis considers the theological potential of this interreligious encounter (or dialogue) between Islamic and Christian traditions in general and the possibilities and difficulties of dialogue between Muslims and Christians in Northern Nigeria in particular. Moreover, this study delves into the need for engagement between theology and politics in addressing issues of conflict. It explores the theology of interreligious dialogue as a means for a promising peace-building process in Northern Nigeria. Religion as a significant part of the problem is equally essential in proffering solutions. However, taken on their own terms, neither religion nor politics have comprehensive answers. Hence, any peace building project in Northern Nigeria must be multi-faceted. It could be, modelled on a theological approach for encounter and dialogue which examines common grounds for collaboration within the two faith traditions, in an attempt to consider and strengthen peace-building endeavours within the region.

Ingrid Mattson, "Of Fences and Neighbors: An Islamic Perspective on Interfaith Engagement for Peace." October 26, 2013 (16 pp.).

Salisu Bala, "Arabic Manuscripts in the Arewa House (Kaduna, Nigeria)." History in Africa, vol. 39, pp. 331-336. Cambridge University Press, 2012. And: Published Online: 01 May 2014.


This paper discusses the Arabic manuscripts deposited in Arewa House, one of the oldest public repositories in Nigeria and now holding 1,600 Arabic manuscripts.

----------, "Sufism, Sects and Intra-Muslim Conflicts in Nigeria, 1804-1979." Comparative Islamic Studies, vol. 2, no. 1 (2006). An abstract.

----------, "Yadda mai gadi ya sa dansa makaranta har ya samu digirin-digirgir." Jaridar Aminiya, January 10, 2018. Originally published July 10, 2015.

Translation: "The story of how a guard supported his son in school till he received degrees." It is the story of Salisu Bala, a Nigerian scholar. See above two articles. Jaridar Aminiya is the Hausa version of the Daily Trust newspaper. Sorry for the Hausa language in which it is written.

Elias Nankap Lamle, "Proposal for Ph.D. studies in Cultural Anthropology; Prospecting the ethno political conflict between the Hausa/Fulani and minority Middle Belt tribes in northern Nigeria: An anthropological perspective" (2013).

Jos Strengholt, "Two Chameleons – Christianity and Islam." Trans. Jan H. Boer. Original: "De Islam is een toverbal," Sophie, 3/2011, pp. 18-21, bimonthly of the Stichting voor Christelijke Filosofie (Foundation for Christian Philosophy) in The Netherlands. Anneke Boer, translation consultant.

Patrick Sookhdeo, Islam in Our Midst: The Challenge to Our Christian Heritage. McLean VA: Isaac Publishing, 2011.

Ton van den Beld, transl. Jan H. Boer, "Help! Muslims Everywhere." Beweging, Fall 2010, pp. 5-9.

Christopher O’Connor, "A Discussion with Bishop Josiah Fearon of Kaduna, Nigeria." Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs, Washington DC, July 1, 2010.

Egodi Uchendu, "Being Igbo and Muslim: The Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria and conversions to Islam, 1930's to recent times." Journal of African History, 51 (2010), pp. 63-87. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Chinyere F. Priest and Egodi Uchendu, "The stages of Igbo conversion to Islam: An empirical study." Review of Religious Research, the official journal of the Religious Research Association, 2020. The final publication is available at < >.

Nicolai Sennels, "Muslims and Westerners: The Psychological Differences." New English Review, May 2010. The ultimate in political incorrectness!

Anonymous, "The Relationship between State and Religion in Christianity and Islam to ISIS State." Presented at International Conference on "Islamic Extremism," March 9-10, 2010. Author’s name is "removed to ensure blind peer review," but there are good reasons to suspect it is Bennie van der Walt.

William Paul Todd, The Attitudes of the Evangelical Church of West Africa (ECWA) towards Islam in Light Of Ethnic and Religious Violence. Unpublished Ph.D thesis for Queen’s University of Belfast, 2010 (434 pp.).

----------, "Percentages by Religion of the 1952 and 1963 Populations of Nigeria’s Present 36 States." Oxford Nigeria Research Network (NRN), Oxford Department of International Development, NRN Background Paper No. 1, 2012.

----------, "Nigeria, Sharia in." In Oxford Islamic Studies Online, Oxford Islamic Studies, 2012.

---------- and A. J. Dekker, "Sharia and National Law in Nigeria." In J. M. otto, ed., Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslims Countries in Past and Present. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010, pp. 553-612.

J. M. Otto, ed., Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010.

M. H. Sani, "Islam and the Public Sphere in Africa: Overcoming the Dichotomies." Journal of Contemporary African Studies, January 2009.

Ted Peters, "Christian God-talk while listening to Atheists, Pluralists and Muslims." Dialog: A Journal of Theology, Vol. 46, Number 2, Summer 2007.

Anonymous, "Strategy for Reaching Muslims: Foundational and Contentious Issues." Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology, Vol. 19. 2, 2000 (pp. 145-155).

Salisu Bala, Tijjani El-Miskin, Y. Y. Ibrahim, Nigeria's Intellectual History: Proceedings of the International Conference on Preserving Nigeria's Scholarly and Literary Traditions and Arabic/Ajami Manuscripts Heritage held on March 7, 2007. Published by V. D. M. Verlag, Germany, n.d.

This book originated from papers presented at an international Conference organised by Arewa House, Centre for Historical Documentation & Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna in collaboration with the United States Embassy in Abuja. Held on March 7th 2007 to kick start a major project on the preservation, digitization, procurement and conservation of the rich Nigerian ancient Arabic/Ajami manuscripts Heritage for the development of new knowledge. A recent survey conducted by Dr. Angel Batiste of the Library of Congress Washington DC in 2007 has proved beyond reasonable doubt of the existence of hundreds of thousands of original Arabic/ Ajami manuscripts resources in private / public repositories in the various nooks and crannies of northern Nigeria. Some of the original scripts are written centuries before the outbreak of the Sokoto Jihad in 1804. There are also manuscripts written by the Sokoto Jihad leaders like Sheikh Uthman bin Fodiyo (d.1817), his brother Abdullahi bin Fodiyo and his son Muhammad Bello (d.1837).

Boer, the founder and author of this website, accidentally came upon an underground ancient manuscript depository during a journey into the Sahara at a dessert town named Chinguetti in Mauritania. For that experience go to the < Boeriana > page of this website, the Boers' memoirs, Every Square Inch.., vol. 5, pp. 87-88. See also his blog < My World-My Neighbour >, Post 313.

Aminah Hack, "The Problem with ‘the West.’" Aver, December 2006, pp. 13-14.

Noor Javed, "The Muslim Public Image Crisis." Aver, December 2006, p. 33.

David Warren, "Now we're talking.." Sunday Spectator, October 22, 2006.

Efraim Karsh, "Islam's Imperial Dreams." Commentary Magazine, October 23, 2006.

Melanie Phillips, "The Fight for the West." The Daily Mail, October 16, 2006.

Noor Javed, "The National Post Experience." Aver, Sept. 2006, p. 18.

Anonymous, "Unlearn." Aver, January 2006, pp. 22-23.

Anonymous, "People in Power." Aver, January 2006, p. 19.

Nowa Omoigui, "Reflections on Arabic inscriptions on Nigeria's currency." Gamji website, October 10, 2005.

James Skillen, "The Question of a Christian Worldview." Washington DC: The Center for Public Justice, Public Justice Report, Vol. 28, No. 1 (March 18, 2005).

Laura Trevelyan, "Will Canada Introduce Sharia Law?" BBC, August 26, 2004.

"Should Islamic Headscarves Be Banned in Schools?" BBC, March 15, 2004.

Theola Labbe, "Hidden in plain sight: the Mideast's slave legacy." VS, February 28, 2004.

"Mecca Pilgrimage: Can It Be Made Safe?" BBC, February 9, 2004.

Judith Dinsmore, "How should Christians respond to Islam? Insights amid uncertainty." CC, January 12, 2015, pp. 1-2.

Nowa Omoigui, "Reflections on Arabic inscriptions on Nigeria's currency." Gamji website, October 2005.

Stanley R. Rambitan, "Christian-Muslim relations in Indonesia." Reformed Ecumenical Council's Mission Bulletin, June 2000, pp. 17-21.

Dardiri Husni. Jong Islamieten Bond: A Study of a Muslim Youth Movement in Indonesia during the Dutch Colonial Era. 1924-1942. A Master’s thesis for McGill University, Montreal, 1998. This book can be accessed at:

Philip Burnham and Murray Last, "From Pastoralist to Politician: The Problem of a Fulbe ‘Aristocracy’." Cahiers D’Etudes Africaines, XXXIV (1-3), 133-135 (1994): P. 313-357. This article can be accessed at:

Hussein Sumaida, Circle of Fear. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing, 1991, p. 171.

Samuel M. Zwemer, Sons of Adam: Studies of Old Testament Characters in New Testament Light. Chapter Three, "Hagar and Ishmael." Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1951.

Herbert Richmond Palmer, Sudanese Memoirs: Being mainly translations of a number of Arabic manuscripts relating to the Central and Western Sudan. An excerpt of volume III, pp. 92-133. Lagos: Cass Library of African Studies; General Studies no. 47, 1928.

Your attention is drawn to this historical document because it contains a piecemeal account of the Islamization of northern Nigeria as well as of the relationship between the traditional Animist ethnic groups and the Muslim community. This excerpt contains much of the famous Kano Chronicles, covering the reign of 48 chiefs and/or emirs from that of Bagoda, son of Bauwo, (A.D. 999-1063) till that of Mohammed Belo, son of Ibrahim Dabo, (A.D. 1883-1892), pp. 92-132.

Subsequent editions have been published and referenced online. Among them that of London: Routledge, 1967—

"Sudanese Memoirs is a foremost contribution to the ethnological and historical literature of Western Africa. In three volumes, they comprise a large number of translations from Arabic manuscripts which were mostly collected in the northern emirates of Nigeria."

Routledge also published it as an ebook, April 1, 2019. ISBN 9780429057847

Other websites include AND that of Indigo, October 17, 2020 at

Isaac Da Costa, "Hagar," a Dutch-language poem. See also AND

The Jewish Isaac Da Costa (1798-1860) lived in Amsterdam and worked as a poet and writer. In 1847 he wrote a moving poem about Hagar and Ishmael. In a deep way he communicated the hope he had for the descendants of Ishmael in the widest sense. One day they will be free and will voluntarily submit to the descendants of Sarah's only son Isaac. What a day that will be!

Parts of the Dutch poem have been translated into English and published by Samuel Zwemer in some of his books. They are available here in PDF.

Barnabas Aid & Barnabas Prayer

Patrick Sookhdeo, ed., Barnabas Aid (magazine) AND Barnabas Prayer (bulletin), < >.

--------, "Muslim Mission Methods: A brief sample" (my own title)., October 8, 2019.

The Islamization of sub-Saharan Africa is advancing in many ways, including literally extending Islam's territory through Muslims' buying land. Mosques are springing up everywhere, whether or not there are any local Muslims. South Sudan, established only eight years ago as a homeland for Sudanese Christians, now has an Islamic University. In Christian-majority Kenya, Muslims are purchasing the plots of land that lie along the main roads, offering owners double the normal price. Areas of the country that used to be non-Muslim have become Muslim-majority. In Muslim-majority Niger, Islamic missionaries from Kuwait are immigrating and establishing whole new "villages."

--------, "Nigerian imam rescues 262 Christians." December 13, 2019.

"An elderly Muslim leader who saved the lives of hundreds of Christians fleeing a murderous attack by Fulani militants in Nigeria has received an award recognizing his courage. The imam was given the US International Religious Freedom Award on July 17, 2019, for his actions in June 2018, when the militants attacked at least ten villages in Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, killing scores of Christians and burning homes in a two-day rampage. He sheltered 262 fleeing Christians, placing the men in the village mosque and taking the women and children into his own home, and putting his own life at risk by refusing the Muslim gunmen access. Pray that many other Muslims will follow the example of Imam Abubakar Abdullahi."

Anonymous, The Kano Chronicle (Translated into English and edited by H. R. Palmer, (1908), "The Kano Chronicle", Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. This work is the chronicle of kings of Kano from its founding about one thousand years ago. It is now in the public domain at:

Christian-Muslim Dialogue, Mutual Mission

Paul Marshall, "The world's largest Muslim organization just honored Evangelicals." Religion Unplugged, July 20 2021.

Leslie, "Making Headway." Delta BC: Loving Muslims Together, November 27, 2019.

Morgan Lee, "Morocco Declaration: Muslim nations should protect Christians from persecution." Christianity Today, January 27, 2016.

Jason Casper, "The world's biggest Muslim organization wants to protect Christians." Christianity Today, May 18, 2016.